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不上课也能学好放肆语言的5个妙招,终究怎样才

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An American friend recently told me of a reunion with the son of the German family whose home he had lived in for a year as an exchange student. My friend had spent the year acquiring fluent German, which he spoke to the family.

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The reunion, several decades later, took place among a crowd who were speaking English. Afterwards, the German son said to my friend: “I never realised you were witty.” Because in German, he never was. It was too hard to joke in a foreign tongue.

什么是流利?探索语言流利的不同类型

文章来源:www.italki.com

文章作者:Lynkusu

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Fluency. As a member of the language community, you’ve surely heard the term everywhere. People constantly ask you if you’re fluent in your target language yet, or claim fluency in their own. Famous polyglots write books or run blogs about hacking into fluency, and pop-ups on the web assure you that (only with their top secret88bifa必发唯一官网,! method, of course), can you reach fluency in two weeks.

流利。作为语言家族的成员之一,你一定在各种地方听到它的名字。人们不断会问你外语说得流利不流利,或者自称自己说得很流利。精通多门语言的名人也会写书或者博客告诉大家流利的诀窍,许多网站上的弹窗小广告也会告诉大家自己有顶级的诀窍让你在两周内说话流利起来。

You might dream of fluency in this or that language, and maybe you’ve already achieved fluency in a foreign language. But, in all the instances of fluency you encounter in your day to day life as a language enthusiast, have you ever considered what fluency really means? What does fluency mean?

你可能做梦都想要让某种语言流利起来,也许你已经说一种外语说的很流利了。不过,作为一名语言狂热爱好者,对于日常语言流利的各种状况,你有没有想过流利究竟意味着什么?流利到底是什么意思?

Well, actually, I can’t tell you what fluency means. The only person who can tell you what fluency means is you. Fluency, like all abstract terms, has no universal meaning, and each individual must determine what the term means. Think about the subjectivity of the term the next time you encounter it “out in the wild.” Does fluency have the same meaning to the person that used it, the blogger or optimistic pop-up ad as it does to you? Why not? How does it differ? What is your definition of fluency?

可惜我真不能告诉你流利是什么意思唯一你能告诉你流不流利的是你自己。流利,就像所有抽象的术语,并不是某一个通用的概念,每一个人对流利的理解也不同。想想下一次你面对到流利的情况。对于语言使用者来说流利是不是都有同一个标准?博主和广告对流利的定义和你一致吗?为什么不一致?区别在哪里?流利的定义到底是什么?

Establishing your personal definition of fluency is an important step to achieving it. Blindly venturing forward without a concrete idea of what it is that you wish to achieve will get you somewhere. But, you won’t know where, and you may not feel like you’ve gotten very far, especially if you’re not yet a linguistic veteran. Setting a more defined goal will help you to structure your journey through your target language and help you to recognize the progress you make on your way there.

要想达到流利,就要定义你的流利标准,这一步很重要。盲目探索,没有具体目标,可能会让你有改变。但是你也不知道改变在哪里,也许你会觉得进步得并不明显,尤其对于你还是初级水平。确定一个目标,可以帮助你有计划地学习,从而帮助你意识到自己的进步,最终达到目标。

To assist you in determining what fluency is, I’ll describe a few different types of fluency.

为了帮助你定义什么是真正的流利,我会描述几种流利的类型。

Perfect Fluency

完美语流

Perfect fluency is how many people who have little to no language experience tend to define “fluency.” Perfect fluency means knowing every word you encounter. It means speaking quickly, clearly and easily and never stumbling or having to search for words. It means having no accent, or only one that is faint and charming. It means never having any semblance of difficulty with the language anymore.

所谓“完美语流”,许多没有语言基础的人觉得这就是流利。完美语流表示你知道每一个遇到的词。表示说话快、清晰、简单,从不打嗝,或者在脑中寻找词语。也表示说话没口音,或者有轻微但迷人的口音。表示再也不会对这种语言的口语有任何困难。

If this sounds like how you picture fluency, pay attention, because this article was mostly intended for you. Perfect fluency does not exist. Nobody is “perfectly fluent” in any language. You aren’t familiar with every word of your native language, and sometimes you have to search for the right word, even in your mother tongue.

如果你觉得这是你想要的流利,那么就要注意了,这篇文章就是为你度身定做的。完美语流并不存在。没有人可以说任何语言到达完美的水平。你的母语你也不是字字都认识,有时候你会要找合适的词。

Most languages have many regional accents and dialects, and you may sometimes even have trouble understanding someone with the same native language from the same country. And that’s not weird. You already knew that these things happen in one’s native language. Natives are able to take a few seconds to search for their next word, but when foreigners do the same thing, why is it assumed they’re simply not fluent? If imperfect fluency is good enough for native speakers, it’s good enough for you.

许多语言会有方言,有时候来自同一个国家的人方言不同你可能理解起来也会有困难。这并不奇怪。你的母语也是如此。用自己的母语说有时候也会要想想下面要说的词语,但是如果说外语的人这么做了,为什么我们要说他们说话不流利呢?如果不完美的语流对母语者来说足够了,那对你也足够了。

Quick Fluency

快速语流

This is the type of fluency you see in advertisements, because “Master a Language in Two Months!” sounds way catchier than “Fluency in Twenty Years!” It sounds too good to be true, because, well, it mostly is. It is possible, of course, to achieve quick fluency, but the fluency achieved after such a short time frame will be a very thin, superficial fluency.

这种流利你可能在广告中看到过,诸如“在两个月内掌握一门语言”听上去一定比“在两年内掌握”吸引人得多。听上去好像太好了一点。因为确实是有点言过其实了。如果有可能这么快就能流利起来,那么所说的流利也只不过是表面上的流利,经不起推敲。

You’ll only know the most common words and you’ll probably have to make use of key words and context to figure out what natives are saying when they respond to you. However, if you are able to successfully utilize a foreign language to obtain relevant information, then you very well may be “fluent enough” for your purposes.

你只知道大部分的常用词,你必须要通过关键词和情景来理解老外所说的话的意思。不过你如果能够成功利用外语来获得相关信息,那么你的语流也差不多能够达到你交流的目的。

Quick fluency is good if you have some sort of deadline. Say, for example, that you’re visiting the country and you don’t want to flip through a phrasebook, butcher a foreign language, and not understand the response you receive. I would recommend drilling phrases and vocabulary that you determine to be important (and here’s a free, handy flashcard program to help you), and getting as much passive practice (reading, listening) in as possible. You can also use LingQ to read along with texts, read out loud and improve your listening comprehension.

如果有那么一个学习期限,快速流利也不是坏事。就好比,如果你要在一个月之内去一个新的国家,但你又不想看词汇书,扼杀外语学习,不想听不懂对方无以作答。我会建议你钻研一本你觉得很重要的词汇书,这里有方便免费的记忆卡片游戏帮助你学习,尽可能获得足够的被动学习(阅读、听力)。你也可以用LingQ来阅读词组,大声阅读,提高听力理解能力。

Again, listening comprehension is extremely important if you actually want to understand the answers to your questions (which, let’s face it, is probably one of the main reasons you asked them). Of course, make sure to also arm yourself with the ever-important phrases, “Could you repeat that?”, “Could you speak more slowly?” and “Sorry, I didn’t understand that.”

再次声明,如你要听懂别人的回答,听力非常重要,这也正是为什么你会给对方提问的原因把。当然,确保要学一些很可能很重要的词组,比如“你可以重复一下吗?”“你可以说的慢一点吗?”以及,“我不理解你说的话”。

Native-Like Fluency

母语水平的流利

Unlike perfect fluency, native-like fluency is a reasonable and attainable goal. Native-like fluency does not mean that you will be mistaken for a native; very few people ever reach that stage. However, it means that you generally know all the same words that a native knows and can speak at the same pace with the same amount of ease as a native speaker. You will likely have an accent, but as long your conversation partner can understand you without difficulty, it doesn’t matter. Tip: If people can’t figure out where you’re from, your accent is probably pretty good.

不想“完美语流”那样,母语水平的流利是合理的可以达到的目标。母语水平的流利并不代表你就是说母语的人。很少的人可以达到这样的水平。不过,这也就意味着你和说母语者所知道的词差不多多,口语语速基本一致,说话紧张程度也差不多。你可能会有口音,但是只要你说话的对方能够理解你,就没关系。诀窍:如果对方不知道你来自哪里,你的口音应该还不重。

Contrary to popular belief, you do not need to live in the country to achieve native-like fluency. But, you do need connections to the country. Luckily, you have the internet, so that’s not much of an issue. Making friends with native speakers helps immensely. Try to find friends, and not just language partners; look for someone whom you’d still enjoy talking to even in your native language. You’ll get much more out of the relationship if it actually means something to you.

跟大家理解不一样的地方是,你不需要生活在当地来获得母语者的流利水平。但是你确实需要和这个国家有联系。幸运的是我们有网络,所以问题不大。和老外多交朋友帮助很大。试着多交一些朋友,而不是单纯的语言伙伴。找到你能够喜欢用自己母语交流的朋友。那么你可以从这段朋友关系中获益匪浅。

Friends will not only provide you with the opportunity to practice your writing or speaking skills, but they also provide real, casual native input and introduce you to an insider’s view of their culture. They can hook you up with native media and equip you with music and TV series in their language. If you have native friends and consume media made for natives by natives, then you are practically living in the country.

朋友可以让你练习写作和口语技巧,他们还可以为你提供一个真实的外语场景,从业内角度了解他们的文化。他们可以帮你介绍当地的节目、音乐、电视剧。如果你有当地的一些朋友看当地的节目,那么基本就相当于你生活在那个国家了。

Okay, so there are certain aspects of the language that are pretty difficult to learn if you don’t live in the country, but these are also things that you generally don’t need unless you live in the country. Household vocabulary like “burner” or “whisk” doesn’t come up often on TV (unless you’re watching cooking shows, I guess), and they’re probably not the topic of discussion between you and your friends. You won’t learn childhood words either, like the names of the equipment on a playground, unless you’re around native children. However, the fact that these types of words are fairly difficult to learn outside the country also show how little you really need them in practice.

当然,如果你不生活在当地的话,有一些语言比较难学。但是这些东西基本你不需要,除非你真的生活过去了。居家用词诸如“煤气头”、“搅拌器”基本不会在电视上出现(除非你看的时厨房节目),所以也不会是你和朋友交流的主题。你也不会学习儿童用词,比如在操场上的一些设施,除非你要和当地的小孩在一起。

所以,生活在国外不在当地,这些词比较难学,这一点也证明了在现实生活中你不太需要用到。

Literary Fluency

文学流利性

Literary fluency is like graduating from native-like to educated-native-like fluency. Now, all of a sudden, you know words that even natives might not know, and you can string sentences together more eloquently than some natives. If that sounds impossible, just keep in mind that as someone who frequents language learning websites in their spare time, you may be on an intellectually higher level than the average person, and many people really kind of suck at their native language.

文学流利性就好像从当地人过度到了有文化的当地人。突然之间,你所知道的许多词连当地人都有可能不知道。遣词造句比起许多当地人来说你都更厉害。如果这一点你觉得不可能做到,那你要记住了,作为一直利用空余时间在出入各大语言学习网站的人,现身说法是你可能比一般人的智力水平高,许多人连自己的母语都用得不怎么好。

Literary fluency focuses on the more intellectual side of a language: indulging in literature, attending university, composing song lyrics, etc. Native-like fluency is not a required prerequisite; it will just improve your feel for the language. You can, however, certainly master reading literature and writing poetry without the ability to converse casually with a native. Literary fluency calls for an almost exclusively passive input. Read novels and texts from specific fields until it all makes sense. Learn in the language instead of reading about the language in your own native language.

文学的流利性更专注语言的文化水平:在文学作品中,上大学,写歌词等等。达到近似母语水平并不是一个预设要求。这仅仅是提升你对语言的感觉。你当然可以掌握阅读文学作品,撰写诗歌,但还是不不能自然和当地人交谈。文学流利性要求的是比较特定的被动灌输。看某一领域的小说,知道你能够理解。用外语学习而不是阅读外语学习的相关内容。

There are a ton of other things that fluency could potentially be, but that’s up to you to figure out. Considering why you started studying the language in the first place should help you determine what kind of fluency you should target. Once you’ve reached your desired fluency, that doesn’t mean you’re done; you can go for another type of fluency and round off your language skills quite a bit. In the very least, you’ll have to work to maintain what you’ve achieved.

语言流利可能还有许多其他的类型。但这都取决与你自己的理解。想想自己最初是出于什么目的学习语言的,这可以帮助你确定你要哪一种流利。一旦你打到自己想要的流利,这不代表你已经学完了;你可以学学其他类型的流利,这让你的语言技巧更完美。最后,你要学会保持这样的水平。

The question you might have about all these fluencies is, “How long will it take me?” Well, that depends entirely on how you study, how much you study, how similar the language is to the one(s) you already speak, and your personal ability to absorb and retain information. Nobody can answer this for you. Just get studying and figure it out for yourself!

有可能你对各种语流的类型会提出这样的问题“要多久才能达到这样的水平?”这完全取决于你学习的方法,学多少内容,你的母语和外语的接近程度,你对信息获取的能力。没有人能够为你回答这些问题。还是开始学习,才能知道自己要什么!

88bifa必发唯一官网 3不上课也能学好任意语言的4个妙招

Anyone who has learnt another language will be familiar with this. We are more ponderous in our acquired language. We are slower on the uptake, having to construct each riposte in advance. But is it also possible that we make more dispassionate decisions when thinking in a foreign language? Academics at the University of Chicago think we do.

In an article published in the Guardian, young learners were asked what motivated them to study languages. Interestingly, only a small number considered school a fundamental drive behind their language learning. Exchanges in foreign countries, conversations with native speakers, watching foreign films and new methods of learning via online games and mobile apps proved much more significant. Here are a few tricks on how to learn once you’ve escaped from the confines of your school walls.

Writing in the journal Cognition, they describe a well-known moral dilemma. You are watching a runaway carriage hurtling down a railway. In its path you see five people tied to the track. On your left is a large man. If you push him into the carriage’s path, you will kill him but save the five. Do you do it?

《英国卫报》曾发表了一篇文章,文章中年轻的求学者们被问及他们学习语言的积极性从何而来。有趣的是,只有小部分人认为学校是促使他们学习语言的重要原因。在外国生活,与当地人交流,看外国电影,通过在线游戏,手机app等学习英语的方法对大部分人来说更重要。一旦你打破学校学习的束缚,以下这些妙招可帮助你学习语言。

The Chicago academics put the dilemma to a group of 800 native German speakers. About half considered the dilemma in German and half in English. Those answering in their second language were more likely to favour pushing the man on to the track.

  1. Throw yourself in at the deep end

The question the Chicago team tried to answer in the Cognition study was why the change happens when people decide in another language. Their hypothesis was that we visualise people and objects more sharply in our native tongue and this affects our decision-making. In particular, when thinking in our own language, we can clearly picture the large man and are reluctant to push him to his death.

1.将自己完全置于语言环境中

To test this, the 800 German speakers were asked to rate the vividness of their images of the large man and the five people on the tracks. Those doing the experiment in German reported having a clearer picture of the man than those doing it in English. There was no difference between the vividness of the images of the five other people on the track.

Many people will look you in the eye and tell you with utter conviction that the only way to learn is to move to the country of your target language. This isn’t strictly true, but it obviously makes immersion more likely. You still have to seek out opportunities for the lengthy and laborious conversations that really affect the rate at which you progress. Don’t forget your original imperatives and slip nonchalantly into groups of fellow countrymen。

Why should this be? The Chicago study argues that the images we form in our minds are based on the memories we have of people and objects. Because we have more experience of people in our native language, we find it easier to picture them.

很多人对看着你的眼睛斩钉截铁地对你说,要学习一门语言,唯一的方法是移居到那个国家居住。这并不是完全正确的,沉浸在那个环境中才是最重要的。你必须得找到机会,与人进行长时间,较费力的对话才行,这种对话才会真实反映你的进步程度。一定不要忘记你最初的想法,只一味地躲在同胞圈里。

The authors concede that “other potential explanations are possible”. However, they did argue in an earlier paper that “a foreign language provides a distancing mechanism that moves people from the immediate intuitive system to a more deliberate mode of thinking”.

  2.Speaking with natives for one hour is more useful than studying for weeks at school

How seriously should we take this? An increasing number of people are now working in organisations that operate in English, mixing native and second-language speakers. It is certainly worth thinking about whether people seem more considered, and make more dispassionate decisions, in English than the native speakers do. The non-native speakers may seem less witty, but pay more attention to their opinions.

2.与当地人交谈一小时胜过你在学校学习几周

When you’re just starting out, equip yourself with questions. As you stumble through your first exchanges, you may sometimes perceive yourself as a tedious conversation partner. Remember that people love to talk about themselves. Expand the range of questions you ask when you meet people and prepare your own answers. If your counterpart is vaguely practiced in the art of conversation, your questions will be duly returned. It is through these exchanges that you will begin to mimic your counterparts, develop and even construct a personality in your new language。

当你着手开始学习时,多准备些问题。前几次与人交谈可能会颇受打击,有时你可能认为别人与自己交谈一定很无趣。但你要记得每个人都喜欢谈论自己。当你与人交流时,扩大自己问问题的范围,并准备好答案。如果对方擅长交流之道,你的问题一定会得到回应。就是通过这些交流,你开始模仿对方,有所成长,甚至在新的语言中建立自己的个性。

  3. Bur the lines between your free time and your learning time

3.弱化学习和空闲时间的界限

Different countries tell stories differently, and they often have a whole cast of acting royalty that is barely known beyond their borders. At the age of 18, I never would have thought that some of my favourite films 10 years down the line would be in Spanish, German, Portuguese or Italian. I didn’t think a German sentence would move me to tears, or a single scene in a Mexican film would jolt me into the immediate purchase of a ticket to la ciudad. I gained so much by watching films in their original, unadulterated versions。

不同的国家讲述故事的方式不一样,他们通常有一套不为外人知晓的行事方法。18岁时,我从未想过自己10年来最喜欢的电影中,有西班牙的,有德国的,葡萄牙的甚至意大利的。我也未想到一个德语句子会让我感动落泪,看到墨西哥电影中的一个场景就让我立即买了票去la ciudad。在原版电影中,我学到了太多知识。

  4. Travel as much as you possibly can

4.尽可能多地旅行

If you travel, you will enjoy the enormous utility of languages first-hand. Your languages will facilitate your movements, ensure a richer diversity of more authentic experiences, and may well even reduce the cost of your trip。

旅行时,你会直接感受到语言带来的便利。语言会让你做事更容易,保证你的经历更真实多样,甚至会减少你的花销。

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